18 Enero 2018
Administrator

Recent studies showed that the circulating stress hormones, epinephrine and corticosterone/cortisol, are involved in mediating ozone-induced pulmonary effects through the activation of the sympathetic-adrenal-medullary (SAM) and hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axes. Hence, we examined the role of adrenergic and glucocorticoid receptor inhibition in ozone-induced pulmonary injury and inflammation. Male 12-week old Wistar-Kyoto rats were pretreated daily for 7days with propranolol (PROP; a non-selective β adrenergic receptor [AR] antagonist, 10mg/kg, i.p.), mifepristone (MIFE; a glucocorticoid receptor [GR] antagonist, 30mg/kg, s.c.), both drugs (PROP+MIFE), or vehicle controls, and then exposed to air or ozone (0.8ppm), 4h/d for 1 or 2 consecutive days while continuing drug treatment. Ozone exposure alone led to increased peak expiratory flow rates and enhanced pause (Penh); with greater increases by day 2. Receptors blockade minimally affected ventilation in either air- or ozone-exposed rats. Ozone exposure alone was also associated with marked increases in pulmonary vascular leakage, macrophage activation, neutrophilic inflammation and lymphopenia. Notably, PROP, MIFE and PROP+MIFE pretreatments significantly reduced ozone-induced pulmonary vascular leakage; whereas PROP or PROP+MIFE reduced neutrophilic inflammation. PROP also reduced ozone-induced increases in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) IL-6 and TNF-α proteins and/or lung Il6 and Tnfα mRNA. MIFE and PROP+MIFE pretreatments reduced ozone-induced increases in BALF N-acetyl glucosaminidase activity, and lymphopenia. We conclude that stress hormones released after ozone exposure modulate pulmonary injury and inflammatory effects through AR and GR in a receptor-specific manner. Individuals with pulmonary diseases receiving AR and GR-related therapy might experience changed sensitivity to air pollution.

 

 

 

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09 Diciembre 2017
Administrator

Oxidative stress and inflammation play key roles in the pathogenesis of Multiple sclerosis (MS). Different drugs have been used in the clinical practice, however, there is not a completely effective treatment. Due to its potential therapeutic action, medical ozone represents a promising approach for neurodegenerative disorders. The aim of the present study was to address the role of ozone therapy on the cellular redox state in MS patients. Ozone (20μg/ml) was administered three times per week during a month by rectal insufflation. The effect of ozone therapy on biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation was addressed by spectrophotometric and immunoenzymatic assays. Furthermore, we investigated the action of ozone on CK2 expression and Nrf2 phosphorylation by western blotting analysis. Medical ozone significantly improved (P < 0.05) the activity of antioxidant enzymes and increased the levels of cellular reduced glutathione. In accordance, a significant reduction (P < 0.05) of oxidative damage on lipids and proteins was observed in ozone-treated patients. As well, the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNFα and IL-1β were lower after ozone treatment. Ozone therapy incremented the CK2 expression together with Nrf2 phosphorylation in mononuclear cells of MS patients. These findings suggest that ozone´s antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects might be partially associated with an induction of Nrf2 phosphorylation and activation. These results provide new insights on the molecular events modulated by ozone, and pointed out ozone therapy as a potential therapeutic alternative for MS patients.

09 Diciembre 2017
Administrator

In the last two decades, the use of ozone (O3) as a complementary medical approach has progressively been increasing; however, its application is still limited due to the numerous doubts about its possible toxicity, despite the low concentrations used in therapy. For an appropriate and safe clinical application of a potentially toxic agent such as O3, it is crucial to elucidate the cellular response to its administration. Molecular analyses and transmission electron microscopy were here combined to investigate in vitro the effects of O3administration on transcriptional activity and nuclear domains organization of cultured SH-SY5Y neuronal cells; low O3 concentrations were used as those currently administered in clinical practice. Mild ozonisation did not affect cell proliferation or death, while molecular analyses showed an O3-induced modulation of some genes involved in the cell response to stress (HMOX1, ERCC4, CDKN1A) and in the transcription machinery (CTDSP1). Ultrastructural cytochemistry after experiments of bromouridine incorporation consistently demonstrated an increased transcriptional rate at both the nucleoplasmic (mRNA) and the nucleolar (rRNA) level. No ultrastructural alteration of nuclear domains was observed. Our molecular, ultrastructural and cytochemical data demonstrate that a mild toxic stimulus such as mild ozonisation stimulate cell protective pathways and nuclear transcription, without altering cell viability. This could possibly account for the positive effects observed in ozone-treated patients.

 

 

 

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