27 Noviembre 2017
Administrator

Abstrac

The use of ozone (O3) gas as a therapy in alternative medicine has attracted skepticism due to its unstable molecular structure. However, copious volumes of research have provided evidence that O3's dynamic resonance structures facilitate physiological interactions useful in treating a myriad of pathologies. Specifically, O3 therapy induces moderate oxidative stress when interacting with lipids. This interaction increases endogenous production of antioxidants, local perfusion, and oxygen delivery, as well as enhances immune responses. We have conducted a comprehensive review of O3 therapy, investigating its contraindications, routes and concentrations of administration, mechanisms of action, disinfectant properties in various microorganisms, and its medicinal use in different pathologies. We explore the therapeutic value of O3 in pathologies of the cardiovascular system, gastrointestinal tract, genitourinary system, central nervous system, head and neck, musculoskeletal, subcutaneous tissue, and peripheral vascular disease. Despite compelling evidence, further studies are essential to mark it as a viable and quintessential treatment option in medicine.

 

Introduction

Ozone (O3) gas was discovered in the 1840s, and soon after that, the scientific community began to expand past the notion that it was just another gas of the Earth's atmosphere. Though the migration of O3 into the medical field has taken a circuitous road since the 19th century, its medicinal value is currently controversial despite compelling research. O3 is highly water-soluble inorganic molecule composed of three oxygen molecules. O3's inherently unstable molecular structure, due to the nature of its mesomeric states, tends to make it difficult to obtain high concentrations. O3 will often experience transient reactions with itself or water. Thus, it was initially problematic to achieve desired levels and even more difficult is to assess the therapeutic effects of such a transient state. These mesomeric states create a conundrum within the scientific community. A divide has formed between those who believe the volatile nature of these mesomeric states can foster positive responses and those who are wary of its seemingly dangerous effects.

Despite suspicions, a multitude of O3 therapies have shown substantial benefits that span a large variety of acute and chronic ailments. O3 is currently prevalent in dentistry to treat diseases of the jaw. O3 has also proven itself beneficial as a disinfectant for drinking water and sterilization of medical instruments. The function of O3 shares similarities to that of a prodrug, as it is modified upon reacting with molecules to create more active substrates, thus stimulating an endogenous cascade of responses. On the other hand, it is hard to classify O3 as simply a prodrug, due to its capability to directly interact with phospholipids, lipoproteins, cell envelopes of bacteria, and viral capsids. The physiology of these biological responses is herein discussed.

Despite the various benefits, O3 toxicity and clinical utility depends on the concentration and administration to the appropriate site. One of the major contraindications of O3 therapy is lung inhalation. O3 therapy significantly increases airway resistance without changing the compliance or elastic characteristics of the lung. Additionally, direct contact of O3 with the eyes and lungs is contraindicated because of the low antioxidant capabilities in these specific locations.

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31 Julio 2017
Administrator

Abstract

Skin is continuously exposed to a variety of environmental stresses, including ultraviolet (UV) radiation. UVB is an inherent component of sunlight that crosses the epidermis and reaches the upper dermis, leading to increased oxidative stress, activation of inflammatory response and accumulation of DNA damage among other effects. The increase in UVB radiation on earth due to the destruction of stratospheric ozone poses a major environmental threat to the skin, increasing the risk of damage with long-term consequences, such as photoaging and photocarcinogenesis. Extracts from plants and natural compounds have been historically used in traditional medicine in the form of teas and ointments but the effect of most of these compounds has yet to be verified. Regarding the increasing concern of the population with issues related to quality of life and appearance, the cosmetic market for anti-aging and photoprotective products based on natural compounds is continuously growing, and there is increasing requirement of expansion on research in this field. In this review we summarized the most current and relevant information concerning plant extracts and natural compounds that are able to protect or mitigate the deleterious effects caused by photoaging in different experimental models.

 

Introduction

Skin is the outermost organ of the body and is subjected to environmental damage such as sunlight and pollution among others. Skin aging is the result of two synergistic mechanisms: intrinsic or chronological aging, a process that occurs not just to the skin but to all tissues and is a result of passage of time; and extrinsic aging, or photoaging, which is caused by repetitive exposure of the skin to damaging agents, especially sunlight (Naylor et al. 2011). UVB is the most dangerous component of sunlight. Due to its high energy, UVB is able to cross the epidermis and reach the upper dermis where is interacts with cellular chromophores, leading to DNA damage and increased oxidative stress (Trautinger 2001; Cavinato and Jansen-Dürr 2017). These events activate innumerous signaling pathways that lead to decreased collagen production, increased synthesis and activity of matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) which are responsible for connective tissue degradation, accumulation of senescent cells, synthesis and accumulation of the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) components and defective degradation of elastic fibers (Cavinato et al. 2016; Cavinato and Jansen-Dürr 2017) (Fig. 1). Macroscopically, these events result in the appearance of wrinkles, increased epidermal thickness with consequent increased dehydration, hyperpigmentation, sallowness, and loss of skin tone, which are the main characteristics of photoaged skin (Quan et al. 2004). The increment in UVB radiation on earth due to the destruction of the ozone layer, is a major environmental threat to the skin, increasing the risk of damage with long-term consequences, such as photoaging, photoimmunosuppression and photocarcinogenesis (Decean et al. 2016).

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31 Julio 2017
Administrator

 Abstract

The physiological and ultrastructural effects induced by acute exposure to ozone (O3) were investigated in the lichen Xanthoria parietina. Our working hypothesis was that parietin content and hydration of the thalli may play a role in the modulation of the effects of O3exposure. Four batches of X. parietina samples, dry and wet, with (P+) and without (P−) parietin, were fumigated for 1 h with 3 ppm O3. The effects of O3 were assessed immediately after the fumigation and after one week of recovery under controlled conditions. O3 fumigation caused physiological and ultrastructural impairment both to the photobiont and the mycobiont,irrespective if samples were fumigated wet or dry, and P+ or P−. However, one week after fumigation, a recovery was observed in P+ samples for the photobiont and in dry samples for the mycobiont. We suggest that the hydration state may play a major role in determining the severity of the damage, while the presence of parietin may promote the recovery. Our results provide physiological and ultrastructural basis to explain the ecological insensitivity of lichens to high environmental levels of ozone occurring during dry Mediterranean summers.

Keywords

Air pollution Biomonitoring Chlorophyll a fluorescence Ergosterol Parietin 

Responsible editor: Philippe Garrigues.

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